BERGAMA

BERGAMA

Bergama has an era of 1.573 km2, and is 107 km away from İzmir.

Its historical name is Pergamon, taking its name from Prince Pergamos. The word “Bergama” means “cliff”.

The first money of Bergama as a medium of exchange was issued in 5th century BC.

Bergama is neighbors with Balıkesir; Savaştepe, İvrindi, Ayvalık, Dikili along with Soma, Kınık, Aliağa, Manisa

Bergama has its name written in the World Heritage List as Turkey’s 13th and the world’s 999th heritage site.

Bergama entered the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2014.

Bergama, the place where the first inflation happened along with the issue of first coin, and also the place where the parchment was invented, is backed with a rich tourism potential.

Bergama is home to many historical works such as Akropolis, Asklepion, Red Basilica, Agamemnon Hotsprings, Kozak Tableland, Arap, Müftü, Ulu, Kurşunlu, Laleli, Kulaksız and Yeni Cami, Küplü Hamam, Tabaklar Hamam, Koca Sinan Mescid, İncirli Mescid and Karaosman fountain along with the Acropolis city.

Bergama is an open-air museum with the Acropolis city which has the steepest theater in the world, one of the first psychological treatment centers Asklepieon, one of the few hotsprings of the time Allianoi, one of the first seven churches of Christianity mentioned in the Bible Basilica and the ancient Pergamon, Havra, Inns, hamams, mosques, fountains, Temple of Serapis, Temple of Athena, Temple of Dionysos and Trajan, King Palaces, the Library of Bergama, Agora, Arsenal, theater with 10.000 seats and Altar of Zeus.

The district has a tourism potential with its geothermal resources such as the Agamemnon Hot Springs for health tourism, and natural resources for rural tourism and ecological tourism.http://www.izto.org.tr/en/izmir-merkez-ve-ilcelerinde-turizm-kapasitesi

Bergama Kermes

Cumhuriyetin İlk Yıllarında
Taşra’da Turizm Politikaları Arayışı:
Bergama Kermesi
In the First Years of the Republic Bergama Kermes as an
Example of Tourism Policies in Rural
Günver GÜNEŞ*
– Mine KOCAMAZ**

ABSTRACT
Bergama Kermes is one the first attempts to advertise different places in Turkey in the first years
of the Republic. Bergama, whose historical features and natural beauties were not kept aware for
many years, became a place where domestic and foreign guests met thanks to the Kermes organized
in the last weeks of 1937. It played an important role in many changes in Bergama. Kermes has
become a center of culture, folklore, tourism and folk dances in Bergama. Despite all the negative
conditions of the Second World War, Kermes could be organized; it represents how popular it is in
society as well. The Kermes provided Bergama whose economy used to be based on agriculture with
not only alternative incomes, but also a good opportunity to advertise the town all over the country.
What’s more, helping people and countries to get in touch with each other better, the Kermes also
has raised the socio-economic level of Bergama.
Bergama Kermes initiated by Fazlı Güleç, the Governor of Izmir and not to be organized due to
various reasons, is the only tourism activity to survive to the present day. Kuşadası Kermes starting
with Bergama’s almost at the same time is now forgotten. In the first years of the Republic the
Kermes launched only in a few towns in Western Anatolia survived only in Bergama in which is the
first local festival in Turkey.
Key Words: Bergama, Bergama Kermesi, İzmir, Fazlı Güleç, Kozak Plateau
*
Yrd.Doç.Dr., Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Fen- Edebiyat Fakültesi, Tarih Bölümü, Aydın
e-posta: ggunes65@gmail.com
** Öğretmen, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Öğrencisi-Aydın

ÖZET
Bergama kermesi Cumhuriyetin ilk yılarında başlatılan yurt köşelerinin tanıtılmasındaki ilk faaliyetler
arasında yer almaktadır. Uzun yıllar tarihî özelliklerinin ve doğal güzelliklerinin farkına varılamayan
Bergama birçok güzelliği ile sessizliğini korumuş, 1937 yılında Mayısın son haftası ilk kermesin
gerçekleştirilmesiyle, yurtiçi ve yurtdışından gelen misafirlerini kermes vasıtasıyla Bergama’da
buluşturmuştur. 1937 yılı itibarıyla Bergama’nın tüm çehresi değişmiştir. Kermes Bergama’nın
kültür, folklor, turizm hareketi ve millî oyunların mektebi olmuştur. Kermesin II. Dünya Savaşı’nın
tüm olumsuz koşularına rağmen devam etmesi, etkinliğin halk tarafından ne kadar benimsenmiş
olduğunu da göstermektedir. Ekonomisi tarıma dayalı olan Bergama’nın kermes ile alternatif gelirler
oluşturmuş, yurt genelinde tanıtımı için iyi bir fırsat da yaratılmıştır. Kermes insanları ve ülkeleri
birbirine yaklaştırırken, Bergama’nın sosyo-ekonomik düzeyinin de yükselmesini sağlamıştır.
İzmir Valisi Fazlı Güleç’in önayak olarak başlattığı Bergama Kermesi çeşitli nedenlerle zaman
zaman verilen aralara karşın, Cumhuriyetin ilk yıllarından itibaren günümüze kadar gelebilen tek
turizm faaliyetidir. Hemen hemen Bergama ile aynı tarihlerde başlamış olan Kuşadası Kermesi
artık unutulmuştur. Cumhuriyetin ilk yıllarında Batı Anadolu’da birkaç kasabada başlatılan ve
bugün yalnızca Bergama’da devam ettirilebilen Kermes, Türkiye’nin ilk yerel festivali olma özelliğini
taşımaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Bergama, Bergama Kermesi, İzmir, Fazlı Güleç, Kozak Yaylası

https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/53026321.pdf

LOCAL TOURISM ACTORS: BERGAMA CASE

ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM EFFECTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL AREA
FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF LOCAL TOURISM ACTORS: BERGAMA CASE
(IZMIR/TURKEY)
Emre ATABERK
Ege University, Institute of Social Sciences, Human and Economic Geography Doctoral Programme, 35100,

Abstract
In an area where tourism endures and starts to develop, its effects on economic and social
structure and its positive and negative aspects can clearly be observed. It is possible to
classify these effects as economic, social-cultural and environmental-ecological effects.
Within the context of positive and negative effects of tourism, substantial “visual” changes
may arise in natural and cultural geographical area. Thereby; while tourism can have a
“standardisation” effect on the area, it can also establish “unique tourism environments”.
Bergama is one of the most important districts for its development at cultural tourism in
İzmir. Rich in its cultural attractiveness, tourism in Bergama has brought forth to some visual
changes in town’s geographical area. “Functional” changes constitute the primary source of
these changes. Because, any regulation and innovation realized for tourism or tourist is
reflected directly on geographical landscape. For example; transportation services, historical
and recreational area design, lightning, souvenir shops, accommodation, food&beverage and
entertainment facilities, restoration studies etc. have created grave innovations/changes on
conventional landuse.
In this report; spatial changes in Bergama as a result of tourism will be analysed in time
scale taking the views of local tourism actors into consideration, reasons will be questioned
and critical approaches for obtained results will be put forward. In this way, it will be also
possible to determine the information and consciousness level of local tourism actors about
the role of tourism for changes on their local environment.
Keywords: Landscape, land use, tourism, spatial effect, Bergama, change.

https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/41146142/ASSESSMENT_OF_TOURISM_EFFECTS_ON_GEOGRAPHICAL_AREA_FROM_THE_PERSPECTIVE_OF_LOCAL_TOURISM_ACTORS_BERGAMA_CASE.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1540820156&Signature=ByqRdgxp4PUNYsBKudBy8T1j5xg%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DASSESSMENT_OF_TOURISM_EFFECTS_ON_GEOGRAP.pdf

 

What is Rural Tourism

What is Rural Tourism

1.
Tourism (both domestic and international) that occurs in rural environments and involves ruralexperience. Learn more in: ICT and Tourism Enterprise Collaboration in Rural New Zealand
2.
tourism activity developed in rural or natural areas. Learn more in: Decision Making in Rural Tourism Management: The Case of Algarve
3.
Any form of tourism that showcases the rural life, art, culture and heritage at rural locations, thereby benefiting the local community economically and socially as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and the locals for a more enriching tourism experience can be termed as rural tourism.Learn more in: Relationship among Influencing Factors of Tourism Infrastructure: An Empirical Assessment at Kamarpukur, India
4.
Tourism that focuses on actively participating in a rural lifestyle. It can be a variant of ecotourism. Many rural villages can facilitate tourism because many villagers are hospitable and eager to welcome (and sometime even host) visitors. Agriculture is becoming highly mechanized and therefore, requires less manual labor. This trend is causing economic pressure on some villages, which in turn causes young people to move to urban areas. There is however, a segment of the urban population that is interested in visiting the rural areas and understanding the lifestyle. This segment in the tourism industry has been rapidly growing in the past decade, leading to rural tourism becoming not just a good business prospect, but a genuine vacation trend. Learn more in: Gap Analysis and Infrastructure Requirement for Tourism Development in the State of West Bengal: Evidence from Bishnupur, West Bengal, India
5.
The development of infrastructure in rural areas having potential for tourism is being supported under the existing scheme of destination development. The objective is to showcase rural life, art, culture, and heritage at rural locations and in villages, which have core competence in arts and crafts, handloom, and textiles as also an asset base in the natural environment. Learn more in: Socio-Economic Impact of Rural Tourism: A Study on Padmanavpur Village of Odisha
6.
All forms of tourist activity carried out in rural areas are usually small-scale and developed within the family economy. It is based on the natural and cultural resources of the rural environment. Learn more in: Information Mycological Systems and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: The Case of Mycological Tourism in Central Mexico
7.
Both development programs are structured around a number of measures, including the promotion of rural tourism. In the rural environment, the development of the tourism sector requires public investment in order to enhance the tourism resources in the region. Religious heritage is a prime example of these resources. Learn more in: The Restoration of Religious Heritage as a Rural Development Strategy